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Using the above definition, the electric potential is not defined whenever magnetic fields change with time. This is done by the following decomposition used in electrodynamics:.
In this case, the voltage between points is always uniquely defined. In circuit analysis and electrical engineering , the voltage across an inductor is not considered to be zero or undefined, as the standard definition would suggest.
This is because electrical engineers use a lumped element model to represent and analyze circuits. If the assumption of negligible leaked fields is too inaccurate, their effects can be modelled by parasitic components.
In the case of a physical inductor though, the ideal lumped representation is often accurate. This is because the leaked fields of the inductor are generally negligible, especially if the inductor is a toroid.
If leaked fields are negligible, we find that. This is the reason that measurements with a voltmeter across an inductor are often reasonably independent of the placement of the test leads.
V is the derived unit for electric potential , electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honour of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta — , who invented the voltaic pile , possibly the first chemical battery.
A simple analogy for an electric circuit is water flowing in a closed circuit of pipework , driven by a mechanical pump.
This can be called a "water circuit". Potential difference between two points corresponds to the pressure difference between two points.
If the pump creates a pressure difference between two points, then water flowing from one point to the other will be able to do work, such as driving a turbine.
Similarly, work can be done by an electric current driven by the potential difference provided by a battery. The hydraulic analogy is a useful way of understanding many electrical concepts.
In such a system, the work done to move water is equal to the pressure multiplied by the volume of water moved. Similarly, in an electrical circuit, the work done to move electrons or other charge-carriers is equal to "electrical pressure" multiplied by the quantity of electrical charges moved.
In relation to "flow", the larger the "pressure difference" between two points potential difference or water pressure difference , the greater the flow between them electric current or water flow.
See " electric power ". Specifying a voltage measurement requires explicit or implicit specification of the points across which the voltage is measured.
When using a voltmeter to measure potential difference, one electrical lead of the voltmeter must be connected to the first point, one to the second point.
A common use of the term "voltage" is in describing the voltage dropped across an electrical device such as a resistor. The voltage drop across the device can be understood as the difference between measurements at each terminal of the device with respect to a common reference point or ground.
The voltage drop is the difference between the two readings. Two points in an electric circuit that are connected by an ideal conductor without resistance and not within a changing magnetic field have a voltage of zero.
Any two points with the same potential may be connected by a conductor and no current will flow between them.
When talking about alternating current AC there is a difference between instantaneous voltage and average voltage. Instantaneous voltages can be added for direct current DC and AC, but average voltages can be meaningfully added only when they apply to signals that all have the same frequency and phase.
Instruments for measuring voltages include the voltmeter , the potentiometer , and the oscilloscope. The potentiometer works by balancing the unknown voltage against a known voltage in a bridge circuit.
The cathode-ray oscilloscope works by amplifying the voltage and using it to deflect an electron beam from a straight path, so that the deflection of the beam is proportional to the voltage.
A common voltage for flashlight batteries is 1. Inside a conductive material, the energy of an electron is affected not only by the average electric potential, but also by the specific thermal and atomic environment that it is in.
When a voltmeter is connected between two different types of metal, it measures not the electrostatic potential difference, but instead something else that is affected by thermodynamics.
The terms "voltage" and "electric potential" are ambiguous in that, in practice, they can refer to either of these in different contexts.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Voltage disambiguation. For other uses, see Potential. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Norwegian. For example, when a large machine is turned on, the demand for power is suddenly a lot higher.
The voltage regulator compensates for the change in load. Servo stabilizers are also manufactured and used widely in Asia.
An AC synchronous motor adjusts voltage in clockwise or anticlockwise direction and manages the output voltage with components like control card,dimmer,comparator, transistors, mocs, etc.
Voltage regulators are used in devices like air conditioners, refrigerators, televisions etc. The major problem faced is the use of relays in voltage regulators.
Relays create sparks which result in faults in the product. Many simple DC power supplies regulate the voltage using either series or shunt regulators, but most apply a voltage reference using a shunt regulator such as a Zener diode , avalanche breakdown diode , or voltage regulator tube.
Each of these devices begins conducting at a specified voltage and will conduct as much current as required to hold its terminal voltage to that specified voltage by diverting excess current from a non-ideal power source to ground, often through a relatively low-value resistor to dissipate the excess energy.
The power supply is designed to only supply a maximum amount of current that is within the safe operating capability of the shunt regulating device.
If the stabilizer must provide more power, the shunt regulator output is only used to provide the standard voltage reference for the electronic device, known as the voltage stabilizer.
The voltage stabilizer is the electronic device, able to deliver much larger currents on demand. Active regulators employ at least one active amplifying component such as a transistor or operational amplifier.
Shunt regulators are often but not always passive and simple, but always inefficient because they essentially dump the excess current which is not available to the load.
When more power must be supplied, more sophisticated circuits are used. In general, these active regulators can be divided into several classes:.
Linear regulators are also classified in two types:. In the past, one or more vacuum tubes were commonly used as the variable resistance.
Modern designs use one or more transistors instead, perhaps within an integrated circuit. Linear designs have the advantage of very "clean" output with little noise introduced into their DC output, but are most often much less efficient and unable to step-up or invert the input voltage like switched supplies.
All linear regulators require a higher input than the output. If the input voltage approaches the desired output voltage, the regulator will "drop out".
Low-dropout regulators LDOs allow an input voltage that can be much lower i. Entire linear regulators are available as integrated circuits.
These chips come in either fixed or adjustable voltage types. Switching regulators rapidly switch a series device on and off.
The duty cycle of the switch sets how much charge is transferred to the load. This is controlled by a similar feedback mechanism as in a linear regulator.
Because the series element is either fully conducting, or switched off, it dissipates almost no power; this is what gives the switching design its efficiency.
Switching regulators are also able to generate output voltages which are higher than the input, or of opposite polarity — something not possible with a linear design.
In switched regulators, the pass transistor is used as a "controlled switch" and is operated at either cutoff or saturated state. Hence the power transmitted across the pass device is in discrete pulses rather than a steady current flow.
Greater efficiency is achieved since the pass device is operated as a low impedance switch. When the pass device is at cutoff, there is no current and dissipates no power.
Again when the pass device is in saturation, a negligible voltage drop appears across it and thus dissipates only a small amount of average power, providing maximum current to the load.
In either case, the power wasted in the pass device is very little and almost all the power is transmitted to the load.
Switched mode regulators rely on pulse width modulation to control the average value of the output voltage. The average value of a repetitive pulse waveform depends on the area under the waveform.
If the duty cycle is varied,the average value of the voltage changes proportionally. Like linear regulators, nearly complete switching regulators are also available as integrated circuits.
Unlike linear regulators, these usually require an inductor that acts as the energy storage element. Regulators powered from AC power circuits can use silicon controlled rectifiers SCRs as the series device.
Whenever the output voltage is below the desired value, the SCR is triggered, allowing electricity to flow into the load until the AC mains voltage passes through zero ending the half cycle.
SCR regulators have the advantages of being both very efficient and very simple, but because they can not terminate an ongoing half cycle of conduction, they are not capable of very accurate voltage regulation in response to rapidly changing loads.
An alternative is the SCR shunt regulator which uses the regulator output as a trigger, both series and shunt designs are noisy, but powerful, as the device has a low on resistance.
Many power supplies use more than one regulating method in series. For example, the output from a switching regulator can be further regulated by a linear regulator.
The switching regulator accepts a wide range of input voltages and efficiently generates a somewhat noisy voltage slightly above the ultimately desired output.
That is followed by a linear regulator that generates exactly the desired voltage and eliminates nearly all the noise generated by the switching regulator.
Other designs may use an SCR regulator as the "pre-regulator", followed by another type of regulator. An efficient way of creating a variable-voltage, accurate output power supply is to combine a multi-tapped transformer with an adjustable linear post-regulator.
In the simplest case a common collector amplifier also known as emitter follower is used with the base of the regulating transistor connected directly to the voltage reference:.
A simple transistor regulator will provide a relatively constant output voltage, U out , for changes in the voltage of the power source, U in , and for changes in load, R L , provided that U in exceeds U out by a sufficient margin, and that the power handling capacity of the transistor is not exceeded.
R v provides a bias current for both the Zener diode and the transistor. The current in the diode is minimum when the load current is maximum.
The circuit designer must choose a minimum voltage that can be tolerated across R v , bearing in mind that the higher this voltage requirement is, the higher the required input voltage, U in , and hence the lower the efficiency of the regulator.
On the other hand, lower values of R v lead to higher power dissipation in the diode and to inferior regulator characteristics. The stability of the output voltage can be significantly increased by using an operational amplifier:.
In this case, the operational amplifier drives the transistor with more current if the voltage at its inverting input drops below the output of the voltage reference at the non-inverting input.
Using the voltage divider R1, R2 and R3 allows choice of the arbitrary output voltage between U z and U in. The output voltage can only be held constant within specified limits.
The regulation is specified by two measurements:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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